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The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer logo was developed to provide a distinct brand for the two treaties across various communication assets and applications. The visual identity guideline is designed to provide a comprehensive overview of applications and correct use of the logo.

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Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) banks from uses such as air conditioners or foams can be emitted after global production stops. Recent reports of unexpected emissions of CFC-11 raise the need to better quantify releases from these banks, and associated impacts on ozone depletion and climate change. Here we develop a Bayesian probabilistic model for CFC-11, 12, and 113 banks and their emissions, incorporating the broadest range of constraints to date. We find that bank sizes of CFC-11 and CFC-12 are larger than recent international scientific assessments suggested, and can account for much of current estimated CFC-11 and 12 emissions (with the exception of increased CFC-11 emissions after 2012). Left unrecovered, these CFC banks could delay Antarctic ozone hole recovery by about six years and contribute 9 billion metric tonnes of equivalent CO2 emission. Derived CFC-113 emissions are subject to uncertainty, but are much larger than expected, raising questions about its sources.

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a global agreement to protect the Earth’s ozone layer by phasing out the chemicals that deplete it. This phase-out plan includes both the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. The landmark agreement was signed in 1987 and entered into force in 1989. 

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Laboratory and analytical uses
Process agents
Tools
Safety standards, Tools

This interactive tool presents a non-exhaustive list of international, regional and national safety standards relevant to Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump equipment developed by relevant Standards Organizations.

The standards are broadly classified into two categories: Main system safety standards, subdivided into Vertical system safety standards and Horizontal system safety standards, and Supplementary standards.

Categories of laboratory and analytical uses no longer exempted

Reference

1. Refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment used in laboratories, including refrigerated laboratory equipment such as ultra-centrifuges

2. Cleaning, reworking, repair, or rebuilding of electronic components or assemblies

3. Preservation of publications and archives

4. Sterilization of materials in a laboratory

Decision VII/11

5. Testing of oil, grease and total petroleum hydrocarbons in water

6. Testing of tar in road-paving materials

7. Forensic finger-printing

Decision XI/15

8. Testing of organic matter in coal

Decision XIX/18