Many millions of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have safely switched from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-powered metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) to either hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) or DPIs. China will be the last country to phase out CFCs by 2016. HFCs are global warming gases which will be controlled in the near future. HFCs in MDIs may be phased out over the next 10–20 years.
|No.||Substance Name||Chemical Formula||ODP||CAS No.||Uses||Mp/°C||Bp/°C||Producer||Amount produced||Manufacturing countries|
|1||Cyclobutane,1,2-dichloro-1,2,3,3,4,4-hexafluoro(or 1,2-dichloro-1,2,3,3,4,4-hexafluorocyclobutane or RC-316c)||C4Cl2F6||Testing as a solvent in aerospace industry||-15||59-60||Japan, Russian Federation, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America|
|2||Hexachlorobutadiene (or HCBD)||C4Cl6||0.07||87-68-3||Solvent applications as well as an intermediate in the production of HFCs.|
|3||n-propyl bromide (or 1-bromopropane, CH2BrCH2CH3 and nPB)||1-C3H7Br or CH2BrCH2CH3||0.0033-0.111||106-94-5||Solvent applications, including degreasing, vapour cleaning and cold cleaning of metal parts|
|4||6-bromo-2-methoxynaphtalene (or bromo-methoxy-naphtalene or BMN)||C10H6BrOCH3||511165-9||Solvent Applications|
|5||Halon-1202 (or dibromodifluoromethane, difluorodibromomethane, Freon 12-B2, R12B2 or UN1941)||CBr2F2||Best Estimate: 1.25||75-61-6||In fire protection systems for military-type aircraft. By-product which may be generated during production of Halon 1301 and 1211.|
|6||1-bromo-3-chloropropane||CH2ClBr or C3H6BrCl||Guess - 0.05||109-70-6||Pharmaceutical industry.||-59||142||Albemarle PPC SA, Fermion||10-5,000 tonnes 1990-1992||France|
|7||Dibromomethane||CH2Br2||74-95-3||Formed during the production of bromochloromethane (BCM) as a by-product in a quantity of about 20 % of BCM. Used in the production of two insecticides.||-52||96||Eurobrom BV, Albemarle SA, Cheminova Agro A/S||100-500 tonnes per company from 1991-1993||Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands|
|8||Bromochloroethane||C2H4BrCl||107-04-0||Was used for soil fumigation. It is produced as a by-product of 1,2-dichloroethane. 1,1 Bromochloroethane: no information available.||9||131|
|10||Bromoethane||C2H5Br||74-96-4||Used as starting material in the production of various chemicals.||-199||38||Albermarle PPC SA, Atofina, Great Lakes Chem (EU or USA), BASF||10-500 tonnes per year, 1990-1993||France, Germany, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
|11||1,3-Dibromopropane||C3H6Br2||109-64-8||Synthesis of the fungicide pyracarbolid, various pharmaceuticals and polyamines.||-34||167||Atofina||10-50 tonnes in 1993||France|
|12||2-Bromopropane||C3H7Br||75-26-3||Formed as a by-product (0,1 ñ 0,2 %) of n-propylbromide.||-89||60||Albermarle PPC SA, Atofina, Gt Lakes Chemical (Europe), Reidel-de Hein||10-500 tonnes per year, 1990-1993||France, Germany, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
|13||C4Cl4F6 2,2,3,3-Tetrachloro hexafluorobutane||CClF2CClF CClFCClF2||375-34-8||As Flon-S-316, a substitute for CFC-113||Asahi||Japan, United States of America|
|14||Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)||CH2Cl2||non zero||75-09-2||Solvent, paint stripper, degreaser, to decaffeinate coffee and tea, flavour extacting, aerosol propellant, PU foam blowing.||-97||40|
|15||Trichloromethane (Chloroform)||CHCl3||0.008-0.01||67-66-3||Production of HCFC-22, solvent||-64||61|
|16||Tetrachloroethene||C2Cl4||0.006-0.007||127-18-4||Solvent, dry cleaning, degreaser, manufacture of HFC-134a||-19||121|
|17||Trichloroethene (Trichloroethylene)||C2HCl3||0.0005-0.0007||79-01-6||Solvent, paint stripper, degreaser, to decaffeinate coffee and tea, manufacture of HFC-134a||-73||87|
|18||Dinitrogen oxide (nitrous oxide, R-744a)||N2O||0.017||10024-97-2||Food additive (E942), Nylon production, medical uses, Propellant, fuel booster||-91||-88|
|19||Chloromethane (methyl chloride, R-40)||CH3Cl||0.02||74-87-3||Production of silicone polymers, foam blowing, solvent||-97||-24|
|20||Trifluoroiodomethane (Trifluoromethyl iodide)||CF3I||0.011-0.018||2314-97-8||Replacement of Halon 1301||-78||-23|
|21||Iodomethane (methyl iodide, Halon 10001)||CH3I||0.008-0.016||74-88-4||Replacement of methyl bromide, feedstock uses, fire fighting||-66||42|
|22||Phosphorous(III) bromide (phosphorous tribromide)||PBr3||non zero||7789-60-8||Replacement of Halon 1301, Feedstock, Process agent||-42||173|
The eighth edition of the Handbook was published shortly after the Protocol, along with the Vienna Convention, achieved universal participation, by 196 Parties, on 16 September 2009 – the first treaties of any kind in the history of the United Nations system to achieve that aspiration. Now, three years later, with the addition of the newest member of the United Nations, South Sudan, and that country‟s accession to the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol, we can still say that the ozone treaties maintain universal participation.
The complete ninth edition of the handbook for the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. The eighth edition of the Handbook was published shortly after the Convention, along with the Montreal Protocol, achieved universal participation, by 196 Parties, on 16 September 2009 – the first treaties of any kind in the history of the United Nations system to achieve that aspiration.
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit services without special permission from the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the source is made. UNEP would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this publication as a source.
Firn-air and ambient air measurements of CHF3 (HFC23) from three excursions to Antarctica between 2001 and 2009 are used to construct a consistent Southern Hemisphere (SH) atmospheric history. The results show atmospheric mixing ratios of HFC-23 continuing to increase through 2008. Mean global emissions derived from this data for 2006 – 2008 are 13.5 ± 2 Gg/yr (200 ± 30 1012 gCO2- equivalent/yr, or MtCO2-eq./yr), 50% higher than the 8.7 ± 1 Gg/yr (130 ± 15 MtCO2-eq./yr) derived for the 1990s.
By comparing the ozone depletion potential–weighted anthropogenic emissions of N2O with those of other ozone-depleting substances, we show that N2O emission currently is the single most important ozone-depleting emission and is expected to remain the largest throughout the 21st century. N2O is unregulated by the Montreal Protocol. Limiting future N2O emissions would enhance the recovery of the ozone layer from its depleted state and would also reduce the anthropogenic forcing of the climate system, representing a win-win for both ozone and climate.
The following supplementary material provides additional details about our ozone depletion potential, ODP, calculations, factors affecting the ODP of N2O, uncertainties unique to the calculation of the ODP of N2O, our method of inferring N2O emissions, and a comparison of the contributions of the sectoral N2O emissions with the emissions of methyl bromide.
The consumption and emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are projected to increase substantially in the coming decades in response to regulation of ozone depleting gases under the Montreal Protocol. The projected increases result primarily from sustained growth in demand for refrigeration, air-conditioning (AC) and insulating foam products in developing countries assuming no new regulation of HFC consumption or emissions. New HFC scenarios are presented based on current hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) consumption in leading applications, patterns of replacements of HCFCs by HFCs in developed countries, and gross domestic product (GDP) growth.