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The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer logo was developed to provide a distinct brand for the two treaties across various communication assets and applications. The visual identity guideline is designed to provide a comprehensive overview of applications and correct use of the logo.

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Ozone-depleting substances emitted through human activities cause large-scale damage to the stratospheric ozone layer, and influence global climate. Consequently, the production of many of these substances has been phased out; prominent examples are the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and their intermediate replacements, the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).

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This quadrennial Assessment was prepared by the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) for the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. The Assessment reports on key findings on environment and health since the last full Assessment of 2010, paying attention to the interactions between ozone depletion and climate change.

Relevant Assessment Panel reports
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This third edition of the manual is updated to re ect the evolving role of Customs and enforcement officers in implementing their commitments under the Montreal Protocol. It includes additional information on all the substances now controlled under the Montreal Protocol, with a focus on hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) which are primarily used as refrigerants and foam blowing agents. HCFCs replaced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which were phased out by 1st January 2010. As most ozone depleting substances are also potent greenhouse gases, the section dealing with linkages between ozone layer depletion and global warming has been extended to include new scientific findings.

article vol 117

We use the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, coupled to a deep ocean model, to investigate the impact of continued growth of halogenated ozone depleting substances (ODS) in the absence of the Montreal Protocol. We confirm the previously reported result that the growth of ODS leads to a global collapse of the ozone layer in mid-21st century, with column amounts falling to 100 DU or less at all latitudes. We also show that heterogeneous activation of chlorine in the lower stratosphere hastens this collapse but is not essential to produce it.

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Many millions of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have safely switched from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-powered metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) to either hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) or DPIs. China will be the last country to phase out CFCs by 2016. HFCs are global warming gases which will be controlled in the near future. HFCs in MDIs may be phased out over the next 10–20 years.

No. Substance Name Chemical Formula ODP CAS No. Uses Mp/°C Bp/°C Producer Amount produced Manufacturing countries
1 Cyclobutane,1,2-dichloro-1,2,3,3,4,4-hexafluoro(or 1,2-dichloro-1,2,3,3,4,4-hexafluorocyclobutane or RC-316c) C4Cl2F6     Testing as a solvent in aerospace industry -15 59-60     Japan, Russian Federation, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America
2 Hexachlorobutadiene (or HCBD) C4Cl6 0.07 87-68-3 Solvent applications as well as an intermediate in the production of HFCs.          
3 n-propyl bromide (or 1-bromopropane, CH2BrCH2CH3 and nPB) 1-C3H7Br or CH2BrCH2CH3 0.0033-0.111 106-94-5 Solvent applications, including degreasing, vapour cleaning and cold cleaning of metal parts          
4 6-bromo-2-methoxynaphtalene (or bromo-methoxy-naphtalene or BMN) C10H6BrOCH3   511165-9 Solvent Applications          
5 Halon-1202 (or dibromodifluoromethane, difluorodibromomethane, Freon 12-B2, R12B2 or UN1941) CBr2F2 Best Estimate: 1.25 75-61-6 In fire protection systems for military-type aircraft. By-product which may be generated during production of Halon 1301 and 1211.          
6 1-bromo-3-chloropropane CH2ClBr or C3H6BrCl Guess - 0.05 109-70-6 Pharmaceutical industry. -59 142 Albemarle PPC SA, Fermion 10-5,000 tonnes 1990-1992 France
7 Dibromomethane CH2Br2   74-95-3 Formed during the production of bromochloromethane (BCM) as a by-product in a quantity of about 20 % of BCM. Used in the production of two insecticides. -52 96 Eurobrom BV, Albemarle SA, Cheminova Agro A/S 100-500 tonnes per company from 1991-1993 Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands
8 Bromochloroethane C2H4BrCl   107-04-0 Was used for soil fumigation. It is produced as a by-product of 1,2-dichloroethane. 1,1 Bromochloroethane: no information available. 9 131      
9 Dibromoethane C2H4Br2   106-93-4   -63 108      
10 Bromoethane C2H5Br   74-96-4 Used as starting material in the production of various chemicals. -199 38 Albermarle PPC SA, Atofina, Great Lakes Chem (EU or USA), BASF 10-500 tonnes per year, 1990-1993 France, Germany, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
11 1,3-Dibromopropane C3H6Br2   109-64-8 Synthesis of the fungicide pyracarbolid, various pharmaceuticals and polyamines. -34 167 Atofina 10-50 tonnes in 1993 France
12 2-Bromopropane C3H7Br   75-26-3 Formed as a by-product (0,1 ñ 0,2 %) of n-propylbromide. -89 60 Albermarle PPC SA, Atofina, Gt Lakes Chemical (Europe), Reidel-de Hein 10-500 tonnes per year, 1990-1993 France, Germany, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
13 C4Cl4F6 2,2,3,3-Tetrachloro hexafluorobutane CClF2CClF CClFCClF2   375-34-8 As Flon-S-316, a substitute for CFC-113     Asahi   Japan, United States of America
14 Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) CH2Cl2 non zero 75-09-2 Solvent, paint stripper, degreaser, to decaffeinate coffee and tea, flavour extacting, aerosol propellant, PU foam blowing. -97 40      
15 Trichloromethane (Chloroform) CHCl3 0.008-0.01 67-66-3 Production of HCFC-22, solvent -64 61      
16 Tetrachloroethene C2Cl4 0.006-0.007 127-18-4 Solvent, dry cleaning, degreaser, manufacture of HFC-134a -19 121      
17 Trichloroethene (Trichloroethylene) C2HCl3 0.0005-0.0007 79-01-6 Solvent, paint stripper, degreaser, to decaffeinate coffee and tea, manufacture of HFC-134a -73 87      
18 Dinitrogen oxide (nitrous oxide, R-744a) N2O 0.017 10024-97-2 Food additive (E942), Nylon production, medical uses, Propellant, fuel booster -91 -88      
19 Chloromethane (methyl chloride, R-40) CH3Cl 0.02 74-87-3 Production of silicone polymers, foam blowing, solvent -97 -24      
20 Trifluoroiodomethane (Trifluoromethyl iodide) CF3I 0.011-0.018 2314-97-8 Replacement of Halon 1301 -78 -23      
21 Iodomethane (methyl iodide, Halon 10001) CH3I 0.008-0.016 74-88-4 Replacement of methyl bromide, feedstock uses, fire fighting -66 42      
22 Phosphorous(III) bromide (phosphorous tribromide) PBr3 non zero 7789-60-8 Replacement of Halon 1301, Feedstock, Process agent -42 173