This briefing note focuses on the key issues related to funding and flexibility in implementation that were discussed by the contact group at the 37th OEWG in Geneva.3 It presents background information related to a number of outstanding issues to be discussed further when the 37th Meeting of the Open-Ended Working Group resumes its work. The issues discussed in this note have been identified in informal discussions during the 37th Meeting of the Open-ended Working Group (OEWG) and were presented by the co-chairs of the contact group. This section is divided into those issues relevant to incremental costs in the consumption, production, and servicing sectors, and also addresses a number of cross-cutting issues.
Industrial chlorofluorocarbons that cause ozone depletion have been phased out under the Montreal Protocol. A chemically-driven increase in polar ozone (or “healing”) is expected in response to this historic agreement. Observations and model calculations taken together indicate that the onset of healing of Antarctic ozone loss has now emerged in September. Fingerprints of September healing since 2000 are identified through (i) increases in ozone column amounts, (ii) changes in the vertical profile of ozone concentration, and (iii) decreases in the areal extent of the ozone hole. Along with chemistry, dynamical and temperature changes contribute to the healing, but could represent feedbacks to chemistry. Volcanic eruptions episodically interfere with healing, particularly during 2015 (when a record October ozone hole occurred following the Calbuco eruption).
A report prepared by the UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel and published in the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. This assessment report provides background information on trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) together with its potential relevance as a risk factor to the environment and human health. In addition, the report draws attention to some of the current concerns of substances controlled by and relevant to the Montreal Protocol.
Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer will achieve the final phase-out of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) this year with the phase-out of CFCs used in metered-dose inhalers (MDIs). This infographic depicts that success.