This third edition of the manual is updated to re ect the evolving role of Customs and enforcement officers in implementing their commitments under the Montreal Protocol. It includes additional information on all the substances now controlled under the Montreal Protocol, with a focus on hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) which are primarily used as refrigerants and foam blowing agents. HCFCs replaced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which were phased out by 1st January 2010. As most ozone depleting substances are also potent greenhouse gases, the section dealing with linkages between ozone layer depletion and global warming has been extended to include new scientific findings.
Many millions of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have safely switched from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-powered metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) to either hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) or DPIs. China will be the last country to phase out CFCs by 2016. HFCs are global warming gases which will be controlled in the near future. HFCs in MDIs may be phased out over the next 10–20 years.
The eighth edition of the Handbook was published shortly after the Protocol, along with the Vienna Convention, achieved universal participation, by 196 Parties, on 16 September 2009 – the first treaties of any kind in the history of the United Nations system to achieve that aspiration. Now, three years later, with the addition of the newest member of the United Nations, South Sudan, and that country‟s accession to the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol, we can still say that the ozone treaties maintain universal participation.
The complete ninth edition of the handbook for the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. The eighth edition of the Handbook was published shortly after the Convention, along with the Montreal Protocol, achieved universal participation, by 196 Parties, on 16 September 2009 – the first treaties of any kind in the history of the United Nations system to achieve that aspiration.
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Firn-air and ambient air measurements of CHF3 (HFC23) from three excursions to Antarctica between 2001 and 2009 are used to construct a consistent Southern Hemisphere (SH) atmospheric history. The results show atmospheric mixing ratios of HFC-23 continuing to increase through 2008. Mean global emissions derived from this data for 2006 – 2008 are 13.5 ± 2 Gg/yr (200 ± 30 1012 gCO2- equivalent/yr, or MtCO2-eq./yr), 50% higher than the 8.7 ± 1 Gg/yr (130 ± 15 MtCO2-eq./yr) derived for the 1990s.
By comparing the ozone depletion potential–weighted anthropogenic emissions of N2O with those of other ozone-depleting substances, we show that N2O emission currently is the single most important ozone-depleting emission and is expected to remain the largest throughout the 21st century. N2O is unregulated by the Montreal Protocol. Limiting future N2O emissions would enhance the recovery of the ozone layer from its depleted state and would also reduce the anthropogenic forcing of the climate system, representing a win-win for both ozone and climate.
The following supplementary material provides additional details about our ozone depletion potential, ODP, calculations, factors affecting the ODP of N2O, uncertainties unique to the calculation of the ODP of N2O, our method of inferring N2O emissions, and a comparison of the contributions of the sectoral N2O emissions with the emissions of methyl bromide.
The consumption and emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are projected to increase substantially in the coming decades in response to regulation of ozone depleting gases under the Montreal Protocol. The projected increases result primarily from sustained growth in demand for refrigeration, air-conditioning (AC) and insulating foam products in developing countries assuming no new regulation of HFC consumption or emissions. New HFC scenarios are presented based on current hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) consumption in leading applications, patterns of replacements of HCFCs by HFCs in developed countries, and gross domestic product (GDP) growth.