The Montreal Protocol is founded on partnership. Developed and developing countries work together to protect the ozone layer. The Protocol’s Multilateral Fund supports developing countries to meet their Montreal Protocol obligations and is a focus for engagement with industry and civil societies. The Ozone Secretariat works with governments and intergovernmental organisations, industry and the scientific community worldwide.
SDG17 highlights the many ways by which working in partnership is essential to achieve sustainable development, including finance, technology and capacity building. Partnership has been a key part of global action to protect the ozone layer throughout the three and a half decades since the Vienna Convention in 1985 and the Montreal Protocol in 1987. The strength of partnership is evident in the Montreal Protocol being the first international environmental treaty to be ratified by 198 parties - every country in the world. These ozone protection treaties continue to make significant contributions to global partnerships to deliver the sustainable development goals, especially through the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol.
The Multilateral Fund (through its 4 Implementing Agencies (UNEP OzonAction, UNDP, UNIDO and the World Bank) supports Target 17.3 to ‘Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources.’ Through the Multilateral Fund the countries of the developed world have provided more than US$4 billion for projects that assist developing countries to meet their commitments under the Protocol. Projects include industrial conversion, training and capacity building. In this way, Multilateral Fund has supported the achievement of many sustainable development goals, especially SDG1, SDG8, SDG9, SDG10, and SDG12.
Target 17.6 refers to enhancing ‘international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge’ and goes on to refer to a ‘global technology facilitation mechanism.’ This is a good description of one vital function of the Multilateral Fund, which provides not only financial support but also a route for the latest advances in ozone-safe technologies to be tested and deployed in developing countries. This is often achieved through multi-stakeholder partnerships, for example with additional direct funding from individual nations to ‘mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources’ (Target 17.16). Under the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, such partnerships are now supporting the shift to climate-safe and energy efficient cooling systems. Further support for developing countries comes from UNEP’s OzonAction unit. OzonAction supports training, the exchange of information, experience and know-how, and the production of publications and tools for national information and awareness campaigns in support of Montreal Protocol objectives.
By empowering governments, industry and civil society, and individuals working across multiple sectors, the work of the Multilateral Fund also supports Target 17.9 ‘Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries.’
Another mechanism by which the Montreal Protocol has been a leader in supporting the SDG17 aims to ‘mobilize and share knowledge’ and to enhance ‘access to science, technology and innovation’ is through its three assessment panels. The Assessment Panels have been vital components of ozone protection since the Montreal Protocol was first established. The members of the three panels are leading experts in relevant areas of science and technology from around the world. The panels prepare scientific assessments and in-depth reports to assist parties take informed decisions on issues related to the protection of the ozone layer. The co-chairs of the panels work with the Ozone Secretariat to communicate to all parties their findings which can be accessed via the Secretariat’s website. The assessment panels also work with the Ozone Secretariat and OzonAction to produce information materials that help the wider public understand the challenge of ozone depletion and the success of the Montreal Protocol.
The Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) keeps all parties fully up to date with advances in sustainable ODS substitutes and technology relevant to the aims of the Protocol. This includes providing regular updates on availability of alternative substances and technologies in various sectors such as air-conditioning and cooling, foams, aerosols, fire control and agricultural pest control.
The Scientific Assessment Panel (SAP) assesses the atmospheric chemistry and physics of the effects of ozone-depleting substances on both stratospheric ozone and climate, especially relevant to SDG13.
The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) assesses the various impacts of ozone layer depletion, including those directly relevant to many SDGs including SDG2, SDG14, and SDG15.