Draft Decisions: Twelfth Meeting of the Parties
3 October 2000
TWELFTH MEETING OF THE PARTIES
TO THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL ON
SUBSTANCES THAT DEPLETE THE
Ouagadougou, 11-14 December 2000
The Twelfth Meeting of the Parties decides:
Decision XII/1. Adjustments with regard to the controlled substance in Annex E
- To adopt, further to decision XI/4 and in accordance with the procedure laid down in paragraph 9 of Article 2 of the Montreal Protocol, the adjustments regarding the controlled substance in Annex E to the Protocol, as set out in annex... to the report of the Twelfth Meeting of the Parties. /
(Source: Report of the Legal Drafting Group, document UNEP/OzL.Pro.12/3)
Decision XII/2. Further adjustments to the phase-out schedule for hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) for Parties operating under paragraph 1 of Article 5
(Source: Paragraphs 51-57 of the report of the twentieth meeting of the Open-ended Working Group, document UNEP/OzL.Pro/WG.1/20/3).
Decision XII/3. Measures to facilitate the transition from CFC-based metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) /
- That, the purposes of this decision, "CFC MDI product" means a CFC-containing metered-dose inhaler of a particular brand name or company, active ingredient(s) and strength;
- [That the use of any CFC MDI product approved for treatment of asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a non-Article 5 Party after 31 December 2000 is not an essential use in its domestic market unless the product meets the criteria in paragraph 1 (a) of decision IV/25];
- With respect to any CFC MDI product(s) that a Party has determined to be non-essential, to request:
a.) The Party that has made the determination to notify the Secretariat of the non-essential product(s);
b.) The Secretariat to maintain a list of such products on its website;
c.) Each nominating Party to reduce accordingly the volume of CFCs it requests and licenses;
- To encourage each Party to urge each MDI manufacturing company within its territory to diligently seek approval for the company's CFC-free alternatives in its export markets and to require each Party to provide a general report on such efforts to the Secretariat by 31 January 2002 and each year thereafter;
- To require each non-Article 5 Party, if it has not already done so, to:
- Develop a national or regional transition strategy that is based on alternatives or substitutes acceptable from the standpoint of environment and health and that includes effective criteria and measures for determining when CFC MDI product(s) is/are no longer essential in its domestic market;
- Submit the text of such strategy to the Secretariat by 31 January 2002;
- Report to the Secretariat by 31 January each year thereafter on progress made on its transition to CFC-free MDIs;
6. To encourage each Article 5 Party to:
- Develop a national or regional transition strategy that is based on alternatives or substitutes acceptable from the standpoint of environment and health and that includes effective criteria and measures for determining when CFC MDI product(s) can be replaced with CFC-free alternatives;
- Submit the text of such strategy to the Secretariat by 31 January 2005;
- Report to the Secretariat by 31 January each year thereafter on progress made on its transition to CFC-free MDIs;
7. To request the Executive Committees of the Multilateral Fund and the Global Environment Facility to consider the need for technical, financial and other assistance to Article 5 Parties and countries with economies in transition to facilitate the development of a national or regional MDI transition strategy;
8. As a means of avoiding unnecessary production of new CFCs, a Party may allow an MDI manufacturing company to transfer:
(a) All or part of its essential use authorization to another existing MDI manufacturing company, providing the conditions in decision IX/20 are met; or
(b) CFCs to another MDI manufacturing company, providing the recipient company complies with national/regional license or other authorization requirements;
9. To request the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel by 15 May each year to evaluate and summarise the information submitted to the Secretariat.
(Source: Proposal by the European Community and paragraphs 62-68 of the report of the twentieth meeting of the Open-ended Working Group)
Decision XII/4. Membership of the Implementation Committee
- To note with appreciation the work done by the Implementation Committee in the year 2000;
- To confirm the positions of Argentina, Bangladesh, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Egypt and United States of America for one further year and to select............ as members of the Committee for a two-year period;
Decision XII/5. Membership of the Executive Committee of the Multilateral Fund
- To note with appreciation the work done by the Executive Committee, with the assistance of the Fund Secretariat, in the year 2000;
- To endorse the selection of......, as members of the Executive Committee representing Parties not operating under paragraph 1 of Article 5 of the Protocol, and the selection of.............., as members representing Parties operating under paragraph 1 of Article 5, for one year effective 1 January 2001;
- To note the selection of........ to act as Chair and of......... to act as Vice-Chair of the Executive Committee for one year effective 1 January 2001;
Decision XII/6. Co-Chairs of the Open-ended Working Group of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol
- To endorse the selection of......... and ...... as Co-Chairs of the Open-ended Working Group of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol for 200l;
Decision XII/7. Data and information provided by the Parties in accordance with
Articles 7 and 9 of the Montreal Protocol
1. To note that the implementation of the Protocol by those Parties that have reported data is satisfactory;
- To note with regret that ---- Parties out of the ---- that should have reported data for 1998 have not reported to date;
- To note further with regret that........ Parties out of the ........ that should have reported data for 1999 by 30 September 2000 have not reported to date;
- To remind all Parties to comply with the provisions of Article 7 and 9 of the Protocol as well as relevant decisions of the Parties on data and information reporting;
Decision XII/8. Ratification of the Vienna Convention, the Montreal Protocol, and the
London, Copenhagen, Montreal and Beijing Amendments
- To note with satisfaction the large number of countries that have ratified the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer;
- To note that as of 30 September 2000, 142 Parties had ratified the London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol and 111 Parties had ratified the Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, while only 43 Parties had ratified the Montreal Amendment to the Montreal Protocol;
- To note further that only one Party has to date ratified the Beijing Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, a situation that will make it unlikely for the Amendment to enter into force by 1 January 2001 as agreed in Beijing in 1999;
- To urge all States that have not yet done so to ratify, approve or accede to the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments, taking into account that universal participation is necessary to ensure the protection of the ozone layer;
Decision XII/9. Disposal and destruction technologies for ozone-depleting substances
Noting decisions II/11, III/10, IV/11, V/26 and VII/35 on destruction technologies and the previous work of the Ad Hoc Technical Advisory Committee on Destruction Technologies,
Also noting the innovations that have taken place in the field of destruction technologies since the last report of the Advisory Committee,
Recognizing that the management of contaminated and surplus ozone-depleting substances would benefit from further information on destruction technologies and an evaluation of disposal options,
- To request the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel to establish a task force on destruction technologies;
- That the task force on destruction technologies shall:
(a) Report regularly [biannually] to the Parties on the status of destruction technologies for ozone-depleting substances, including an assessment of their environmental and economic performance as well as their commercial availability;
(b) Review existing criteria for the approval of destruction facilities, as provided for in section 2.4 of the Handbook for the International Treaties for the Protection of the Ozone Layer /
3. To request the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel:
(a) To evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of options for the long-term management of contaminated ozone-depleting substances in Article 5 and non-Article 5 countries, including options such as long-term storage, transport, collection, reclamation and disposal of such ozone-depleting substances;
(b) To consider possible linkages to other international treaties regarding the issue of disposal;
(Source: Paragraphs. 74-78 and annex III of the report of the twentieth meeting of the Open-ended Working Group)
Decision XII/10. Essential-use nominations for non-Article 5 Parties for controlled
substances for 2001 and 2002
- To note with appreciation the excellent work done by the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel and its Technical Options Committees;
- That the levels of production and consumption necessary to satisfy essential uses of CFCs for metered-dose inhalers for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and CFC-113 for torpedo maintenance are authorized as specified in annex...... to the report of the Twelfth Meeting of the Parties, / subject to the conditions established by the Meeting of the Parties in paragraph 2 of its decision VII/28;
(Source: Paragraphs 20-26 and 32-36 and annex I of the report of the twentieth meeting of the Open-ended Working Group)
Decision XII/11. Measures to make halons available for essential/critical uses in Parties
operating under paragraph 1 of Article 5
(Source: Paragraphs 79 and 80 of the report of the twentieth meeting of the Open-ended Working Group)
Decision XII/12. Use of ozone-depleting substances as process agents
(Source: Paragraphs 69-73 of the report of the twentieth meeting of the Open-ended Working Group)
Decision XII/13. Prevention of illegal trade in ozone-depleting substances and products
containing ozone-depleting substances
Recognizing the threat of illegal trade in ozone-depleting substances and products containing ozone-depleting substances to the global process of ozone layer protection,
Understanding the importance of control of trade in ozone-depleting substances and products containing ozone-depleting substances in all Parties in view of the need for global implementation of the Montreal Protocol provisions,
Acknowledging that presently the effective control at national borders of trade in ozone-depleting substances and products containing ozone-depleting substances is very difficult due to problems in ozone-depleting substances identification, the complexity of relevant customs codes, the lack of an internationally accepted common labelling system and the lack of specially trained customs officers, and the need to approach most of these problems by concerted action at the international level,
- To request the Ozone Secretariat to convene a task force on ozone-depleting substances customs codes to discuss formally, in consultation, if necessary, with the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel and international trade and customs organizations, the following issues relating to the customs classification of ozone-depleting substances, mixtures containing ozone-depleting substances and products containing ozone-depleting substances; and to report its findings to the first meeting of the Open-ended Working Group in 2002:
- Current national legislation on the labelling of ozone-depleting substances, mixtures containing ozone-depleting substances and products containing ozone-depleting substances;
- The need for, scope of and cost of implementation of a universal labelling and/or classification system for ozone-depleting substances, mixtures containing ozone-depleting substances and products containing ozone-depleting substances;
- Methods for sharing experience on the formats of national databases for customs officers, risk profiles for ozone-depleting substances and products containing ozone-depleting substances, control of exports, and incidents of illegal trade and convictions achieved;
- The differences between products containing ozone-depleting substances and mixtures containing ozone-depleting substances, and the possibility of the creation of a list of categories of products containing ozone-depleting substances with the corresponding Harmonized System/Combined Nomenclature classification;
2. To recommend that the Division of Technology, Industry and Economics of the United Nations Environment Programme continue and enhance its activities with regard to providing information on the above to Article 5 Parties and countries with economies in transition, specifically through customs training at the regional and national level.
(Source: Paragraphs 99-104 and annex IV to the report of the twentieth meeting of the Open-ended Working Group)
Decision XII/14. New Ozone-depleting substances - information on hexachlorobutadiene
(Source: Paragraph 43 of the report of the twentieth meeting of the Open-ended Working Group and paragraphs 31-33 of the Report of the Executive Director, document UNEP/OzL.Pro. 12/2).
Decision XII/15. Application of Kyrgyzstan for developing country status under the Montreal Protocol
(Source: Paragraphs 34 and 35 of the Report of the Executive Director, document UNEP/OzL.Pro.12/2)
Decision XII/16. Non-compliance with the Montreal Protocol
[Recommendations on draft decisions made by the Implementation Committee at its meeting on 9 December 2000 will be submitted to the Twelfth Meeting of the Parties.]
Decision XII/17. Financial matters: Financial report and budgets
- To take note of the financial report on the Trust Fund for the Montreal Protocol for 1999 as contained in document UNEP/OZL.Pro.12/6;
- To urge all Parties to pay their outstanding contributions promptly and also to pay their future contributions promptly and in full, in accordance with the formula for contributions by Parties as set out in annex (....) to the report of the Twelfth Meeting of the Parties;
- To approve the revised budgets of US$..... for 2001 and proposed budget of US$...... for 2002 as set out in annex (....) to the report of the Twelfth Meeting of the Parties;
- To encourage Parties not operating under Article 5 to continue offering financial assistance to their members in the three Assessment Panels and their subsidiary bodies for their continued participation in the assessment activities under the Protocol.
(Source: Financial Report on the Trust Fund for the Montreal Protocol, document UNEP/OzL.Pro.12/6; Budget for the Montreal Protocol Trust Fund, document UNEP/OzL.Pro.12/5).
Decision XII/18. Thirteenth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol
To convene the Thirteenth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol in [Nairobi], in October/November 2001.
ADJUSTMENTS TO THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL ON SUBSTANCES
THAT DEPLETE THE OZONE LAYER
[Proposed] Adjustments relating to the controlled substance in Annex E
Article 2H: Methyl bromide
1. The third sentence of paragraph 3 of Article 2H of the Protocol shall be replaced by the following sentence:
However, in order to satisfy the basic domestic needs of the Parties operating under paragraph 1 of Article 5, its calculated level of production may, until 1 January 2002, exceed that limit by up to ten per cent of its calculated level of production in 1991; thereafter, it may exceed that limit by a quantity equal to the annual average of its production of the controlled substance in Annex E for basic domestic needs for the period 1995 to 1998 inclusive.
2. The third sentence of paragraph 4 of Article 2H of the Protocol shall be replaced by the following sentence:
However, in order to satisfy the basic domestic needs of the Parties operating under paragraph 1 of Article 5, its calculated level of production may exceed that limit by a quantity equal to the annual average of its production of the controlled substance in Annex E for basic domestic needs for the period 1995 to 1998 inclusive.
3. The third sentence of paragraph 5 of Article 2H of the Protocol shall be replaced by the following sentence:
However, in order to satisfy the basic domestic needs of the Parties operating under paragraph 1 of Article 5, its calculated level of production may not exceed eighty per cent of the annual average of its production of the controlled substance in Annex E for basic domestic needs for the period 1995 to 1998 inclusive.
4. Paragraph 5 bis of Article 2H of the Protocol shall be repealed and paragraph 5 ter of that Article shall be renumbered 5 bis.
ESSENTIAL USE NOMINATIONS FOR 2001-2002 RECOMMENDED BY THE
OPEN-ENDED WORKING GROUP FOR APPROVAL BY THE
TWELFTH MEETING OF THE PARTIES
United States of America
EXPLANATORY TEXT TO DRAFT DECISION ON MEASURES TO FACILITATE THE TRANSITION FROM CFC-BASED METERED-DOSE INHALERS (MDIs)
- This explanatory text describes changes made to the draft decision that aim to take account of comments made during two MDI Contact Group meetings at the Open-ended Working Group meeting held in Geneva, 11-13 July 2000. It also describes in detail the intent of each paragraph in cases where no text changes were considered necessary to address questions raised by the Parties. The explanatory text is not part of the final decision but is provided here only for a broader understanding of the intent of each paragraph. Therefore, this explanatory text has no legal status (i.e., it is not travaux preparatoires).
- In general, Paragraph 1 is new since the Geneva meeting, and Paragraph 6 (from the Geneva meeting) has been merged with the two previous paragraphs.
- Paragraph 1 defines a 'CFC MDI product' in much the same way that a national regulatory agency would consider each new MDI application for marketing approval. As some inhalers can contain more than one active ingredient, the option of a plural form of 'ingredient(s)' is provided in the definition. Providing a definition, and consistently using the same term throughout the decision (where appropriate), adds clarity and addresses a concern raised by several Parties in the MDI Contact Group at the Open-ended Working Group meeting in Geneva.
- Paragraph 2 aims to discourage placing on the market new CFC MDIs by deeming any product that has been approved after 31 December 2000 to be non-essential unless the CFC-containing product meets the criteria set out in paragraph 1 (a) of decision IV/25. Paragraph 1 (a) of decision IV/25 states:
"1(a) That a use of a controlled substance should qualify as "essential" only if:
- It is necessary for health, safety or is critical for the functioning of society (encompassing cultural and intellectual aspects); and
- There are no available technically and economically feasible alternatives or substitutes that are acceptable from the standpoint of environment and health[.]"
- Thus, Paragraph 2 would not preclude a new CFC-containing medical device that provided a new therapy (e.g., a new treatment for diabetes) from being deemed essential if it were necessary for health and no non-ODS alternatives were available. Nevertheless, in response to concerns that this provision might be interpreted as discouraging significant advances in therapy, the phrase 'asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease' has been added in order to specifically relate this decision to those uses already designated essential by the Parties and for which a transition has been ongoing for several years.
- Treatment for a disease other than asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that requires the use of an ODS would still need to be reviewed by the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) and approved by the Parties. This has been the case since the essential use exemption entered into force, and it is not affected by this decision. Similarly, a new CFC-containing product for treating asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease could also be deemed essential if the product met the criteria in paragraph 1 (a) of decision IV/25.
- In addition, the phrase "...in its domestic market..." has been added in response to the concerns of some Parties that this paragraph might prematurely cut off exports of a CFC-MDI product before an importing Party had completed its transition. The importing Party will be in the best position to judge whether a particular product is "necessary for health and safety" of its citizens.
- As TEAP has stated, the continued introduction of new CFC-MDIs is an impediment to the transition toward non-CFC MDIs. Parties must make every effort to eliminate all CFC use, including the use of CFCs where alternatives are available.
- In this regard, it should be recalled that at the meeting of the opening-ended Working Group, a spokesperson for the American Lung Association stated that "...discouraging the continued introduction of new CFC MDIs that provide no therapeutic benefit would remove a major impediment to a smooth transition [to non-CFC MDIs]". The American Lung Association represents some 50 million patients from several patient organizations in the United States.
- Finally, it is important to note that this paragraph does not affect the wide range of CFC-MDI products already on the market. In the United States, for example, there are already 18 brands of salbutamol now on the market.
- Paragraph 3 requests each Party to inform the Secretariat of CFC MDI products that the Party has determined to be "non-essential" in its own territory, requests the Secretariat to list such determinations on its website, and requests nominating Parties to reduce their nominated volumes of CFCs taking into account the quantity of CFC MDIs that are no longer required in light of such determinations.
- As a hypothetical example, an importing Party might already have three non-CFC adrenergic bronchodilator MDIs approved for sale domestically and see no benefit in having CFC-MDI products providing the same therapy on its market. In this example, the importing Party would notify the Secretariat, which would then post on its website the products so determined as well as any other relevant information provided by the importing Party. Nominating Parties would take account of the CFC-MDIs on the "not essential" list and ensure that their CFC nominations did not include CFC volumes for these MDI products destined for the importing Party. The only obligations on Parties in this paragraph are to report to the Secretariat on essential use determinations and to adjust CFC essential use volume requests. Nothing in this paragraph would allow any importing Party to discriminate against imports of like products from different importers or to discriminate in favour of domestic like products. Therefore, nothing in this paragraph is inconsistent with GATT (1994).
- Paragraph 4 encourages each Party to urge MDI manufacturing companies within its territory to convert their export markets as soon as possible to non-CFC MDIs, thus facilitating the TEAP recommendation of rapidly introducing CFC-free inhalers and technologies into all Parties. There is also a requirement for each Party to report on such efforts. Each Party would present a general report annually to the Ozone Secretariat by 31 January, starting in 2002. This general report would not disclose any company or government confidential information.
- Paragraph 5 requires each non-Article 5 Party to develop a national or regional transition strategy that includes specific criteria and measures to determine when CFC MDIs are no longer essential, and to submit the text of such strategy to the Secretariat. The word 'effective' has been added as some Parties had difficulty with "...on an active ingredient or other such basis...", which has now been deleted. Parties that already have submitted such a strategy under decision IX/19 are under no obligation to submit a further strategy.
- This paragraph retains the requirement for all non-Article 5 Parties to report annually on transition progress. Currently, essential use nominating Parties already provide some information on transition progress as part of their essential use application. However, fewer than ten Parties have submitted essential use nominations, even though patients in more than 120 Parties use MDIs. The European Community believes it would be valuable for the Parties and for TEAP to understand progress in the transition across a much broader base of Parties.
- Paragraph 5 now makes it clear that the report is to be submitted to the Ozone Secretariat.
- Paragraph 6 encourages each Article 5 Party to develop by 31 January 2005 a national or regional transition strategy that includes specific criteria to determine when CFC-MDIs are no longer essential, and to submit the text of such strategy to the Secretariat. This paragraph parallels paragraph 5, except the operative verb is changed to "encourage" and the date is changed to 31 January 2005.
- It is important for Article 5 countries to develop CFC transition strategies now, since they are already putting in place and implementing national policies for compliance with their Protocol obligations. Moreover, since the greatest growth in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence and treatment will be in Article 5 countries, it is in their best interest to provide patients with CFC-free therapy as soon as possible, to avoid an increased demand for CFC MDIs at a time when most countries are eliminating CFC production and consumption, followed later by a need to switch patients from CFC MDIs to non-CFC MDIs.
- All Parties, including Article 5 Parties, are encouraged to examine previous strategies completed by a number of countries including the European Community, Australia, United States of America, Malaysia, Japan, New Zealand and South Africa. Most of these strategies can be downloaded from a website and are also available from the Ozone Secretariat.
- Paragraph 6 also encourages each Article 5 Party (or group of Parties if part of a regional strategy) to report to the Secretariat on progress made on its transition strategy, including information on CFC-free MDI product approvals. The first Article 5 Party report to the Ozone Secretariat would be submitted in 2006 and annually thereafter.
- In its April 1999 Report, TEAP recommended that all Parties "...should have ...transition strategies ... which would ...[promote] ... a reduction in requests for CFCs." Paragraphs 5 and 6 address that recommendation.
- Paragraph 7 requests the Multilateral Fund (with respect to Article 5 Parties) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF) (with respect to countries with economies in transition Parties) to consider funding a national or regional strategy. GEF was added in response to a comment by a country with economy in transition Party at the Open-ended Working Group meeting. It is certainly within the legal jurisdiction of the Multilateral Fund and GEF to consider funding a national or regional strategy, and it would also be within their jurisdiction to authorise funds for such purpose.
- Providing funding assistance for Article 5 and countries with economies in transition Parties to develop such strategies is not without precedent in the Multilateral Fund, particularly in cases where an 'early but timely' policy project ("the ambulance at the top of the cliff") has the potential to prevent an increase in future ODS consumption. Early implementation of a policy project, in comparison to a later investment project ("the ambulance at the bottom of the cliff"), is relatively low cost and has the potential to shorten the time needed for completing the transition to non-CFC MDIs.
- Ultimately, however, Multilateral Fund-GEF funding of projects will depend on relative funding priorities at the time the projects are submitted, and the decision on funding will be made by members of the Executive Committee of the Multilateral Fund and the GEF Governing Council. Nevertheless, based on the TEAP 1996 report, which showed that effective policy development was 4-7 times more cost-effective than other methods of controlling ODS, the Parties should see value in supporting Multilateral Fund-GEF consideration of such expenditure.
- Paragraph 8 aims to avoid the production of new CFCs by offering a Party the opportunity to allow an MDI company to transfer: (a) all or part of its essential use authorization (the "paper authority"), provided the conditions in subparagraphs (a) to (d) of paragraph 2 of decision IX/20 are met; or (b) CFCs (the "bulk chemical") to another MDI manufacturing company, providing the company complies with national/regional license or other authorization requirements.
- The criteria in subparagraphs (a) to (d) of paragraph 2 of decision IX/20 are:
"(a) The transfer applies only up to the maximum level that has previously been authorised for the calendar year in which the next Meeting of the Parties is to be held;
- Both Parties involved agree to the transfer;
- The aggregate annual level of authorizations for all Parties for essential uses of MDIs does not increase as a result of the transfer;
- The transfer or receipt is reported by each Party involved on the essential-use quantity-accounting format approved by the Eighth Meeting of the Parties by paragraph 9 of decision VIII/9."
- Paragraph 8 (a) of the draft decision builds on prior Protocol decisions regarding the transfer of essential use authorizations. In its 1999 Report, TEAP stated that "...flexibility in the transfer of rights between Parties will facilitate the transition with no net environmental impact." Prior Protocol decisions have proven to be too restrictive to allow real-world transfers. For example, decision VIII/9 allows the transfer of only 20 tons of authorizations, whereas an average size MDI company may require 4 to 5 times this volume to meet the manufacturing requirement of a short-notice demand for CFC MDIs. Similarly, decision IX/20 allows transfers of essential use authorizations only in "emergency situations" - even though, as TEAP has noted, most MDI companies need transfers because of manufacturing rationalization resulting from conversion of production facilities to CFC-free MDI production.
- Paragraph 8 (a) thus maintains the needed checks established in decision IX/20, e.g., approval of the Parties involved, no net increase in authorizations, but streamlines the approval process of prior Protocol decisions.
- An example of how paragraph 8 (a) might operate can be seen by considering an actual transfer of authorizations that occurred between Australia and New Zealand. In that case, the transfer was approved by the Meeting of the Parties shortly after the request, thus avoiding any significant delay. However, if paragraph 8 (a) had been available, the transfer could have occurred between Australia and New Zealand directly and need not have involved approval by the Meeting of the Parties, thus streamlining the approval process and avoiding potential delays.
- It is extremely unlikely that MDI manufacturers will inflate their nomination request in an attempt to profit from sales of authorizations. Before any authorization is granted to a company it is subject to multiple levels of scrutiny by: (a) the nominating Party; (b) TEAP; (c) the Meeting of the Parties; and (d) the licensing authority of the nominating Party. In addition, prior to a transfer, there would be further review by the two Parties involved.
- Paragraph 8 (b) also addresses a TEAP recommendation. In its 1998 report, TEAP recommended that Parties "consider developing a process that allows movement of CFCs between MDI manufacturers [holding] an authorized essential use exemption." Currently under the Protocol and the law of many nominating Parties, a company holding CFCs obtained under an essential use authorization may not transfer those CFCs to another MDI company, even if the latter has been granted an essential use license. Thus, if an MDI company finds that it has more CFCs than it needs, its only alternative is to have the CFCs destroyed by incineration or other Protocol approved process.
- Paragraph 8 (b) also addresses the declining production of CFCs. As the supply of pharmaceutical grade CFCs diminishes, it will become increasingly urgent to find sources of CFCs. MDI companies that complete their transitions before exhausting their supply of CFCs could provide MDI companies still transitioning with the CFCs to satisfy patient needs.
- There are no examples of actual use of paragraph 8 (b), as it is currently illegal to transfer essential use CFCs between companies. Its main use likely would be toward the tail end of the transition as companies seek to rationalize resources and maintain production and cost efficiency, and CFCs become more scarce.
- Paragraphs 8 (a) and 8 (b), will make the best use of declining CFC volumes that are approved annually by the Parties by allowing the transfer of CFCs for essential uses, either the transfer of the authorization or the transfer of bulk chemical. This will reduce the need for the production of new CFCs for CFC MDIs and diminish any environmental impact that might occur as a result of destruction of surplus CFCs.
- Paragraph 9 requests TEAP to report on information submitted by the Parties to the Secretariat in this decision, including information on national-regional transition strategies, CFC MDI products posted on the Secretariat website, and individual Party progress on the transition strategy. This paragraph augments prior decisions (VII/28 and VII/34) by giving TEAP a more specific and affirmative mandate to continue to conduct regular evaluations of Parties' progress on their transition, of their CFC use and nominations, and CFC-free product approvals.