The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol entered into force on 1 January 2019 after the threshold for the agreement to enter into force was met on 17 November 2017, when it was ratified by 20 parties.
Montreal Protocol parties continue to ratify the Amendment, which has so far been ratified by 132 parties. The parties, listed alphabetically, are: Albania, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Australia, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Eswatini, Ethiopia, European Union, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Japan, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Kiribati, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia (Federated States of), Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Macedonia, Norway, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Serbia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Viet Nam, Zambia.
The Amendment was adopted by the 28th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on 15 October 2016 in Kigali, Rwanda. Under the Amendment, all countries will gradually phase down HFCs by more than 80 per cent over the next 30 years and replace them with more planet-friendly alternatives.
Developed countries will start reducing HFCs as early as 2019, while developing countries will start later. Phasing down HFCs under the Protocol is expected to avoid up to 0.5°C of global warming by the end of the century, while continuing to protect the ozone layer.
All prior amendments and adjustments of the Montreal Protocol have universal support.
March 30, 2017
January 28, 2017
November 19, 2016
October 11, 2016
February 13, 2017
October 16, 2016
April 22, 2022