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Ozone Timeline

  • 2019

    Kigali amendment enters into force

    The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal protocol entered into force on 1 January 2019. The Amendment will reduce the projected production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by more than 80 per cent over the next 30 years.

  • 2016

    Kigali amendment adopted

    Parties adopt the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on 15 October, agreeing to phase down the consumption and production of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

  • 2015

    HFC phase-down pathway agreed to

    After six years of discussions, parties agree to work under the “Dubai Pathway on Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)” towards an amendment to the Montreal Protocol to phase down HFCs.

  • 2015

    Notable reductions by developing countries

    Developing countries phase out methyl chloroform and reduce by 10 per cent their production and consumption of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).

  • 2014

    All four protocol amendments ratified

    All four Amendments to the Montreal Protocol achieve universal ratification by 197 Parties.

  • 2013

    Healing of ozone layer confirmed

    The scientific assessment of ozone depletion in 2014 confirms that the ozone layer is healing and will return to pre-1980 levels by mid-century, thanks to actions taken by Parties under the Montreal Protocol.

  • 2013

    90% reduction of HCFCs in developed countries

    Developed countries eliminate 90% of their HCFC production and consumption.

  • 2013

    Developing countries freeze HCFCs

    Developing countries freeze the production and consumption of HCFCs.

  • 2012

    Skin cancer prevention recognized

    A scientific article published in the Photochemistry and Photobiology journal notes that through ozone protection efforts, up to 2 million cases of skin cancer may be prevented each year by 2030.

  • 2010

    All parties phase out fully hydrogenated ODSs

    All parties to the Montreal Protocol phase out the consumption and production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride and other fully hydrogenated ozone depleting substances.

  • 2009

    Climate change impact measured

    A scientific article published in the PNAS journal notes that the Montreal Protocol has averted more than 135 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions going to the atmosphere, thus significantly contributing to the mitigation of climate change.

  • 2008

    Universal ratification achieved

    The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol become the first multilateral environmental treaties to achieve universal ratification.

  • 2008

    Protocol adjustments enter into force

    Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 2007 in Montreal at the Nineteenth Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

  • 2007

    HCFC phase-out accelerated

    The Montreal Protocol is adjusted to accelerate the phase-out of HCFCs by developing countries.

  • 2005

    Largest antarctic ozone hole recorded

    The largest Antarctic ozone hole, averaging 26.6 million square kilometres, is recorded.

  • 2004

    Developed countries phase out methyl bromide

    Developed countries phase out methyl bromide, followed by developing countries by 2015.

  • 2003

    Montreal protocol wins praise

    Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan terms the Montreal Protocol “perhaps the single most successful international environmental agreement to date.”

  • 2002

    Beijing amendment enters into force

    The Beijing Amendment to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1999 in Beijing at the Eleventh Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

  • 2000

    Protocol adjustments enter into force

    Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1999 in Beijing at the Eleventh Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

  • 1999

    Montreal amendment enters into force

    The Montreal Amendment to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1997 in Montreal at the Ninth Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

  • 1998

    Protocol adjustments enter into force

    Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1997 in Montreal at the Ninth Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

  • 1997

    First developing country control measures take effect

    The first set of control measures under the Montreal Protocol take effect for developing countries.

  • 1996

    Developed countries phase out CFCs

    Developed countries phase out production and consumption of CFCs, followed by developing countries by 2010

  • 1996

    Protocol adjustments enter into force

    Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1995 in Vienna at the Seventh Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

  • 1994

    Ozone work wins nobel prize

    The Nobel Prize for Chemistry is awarded to Sherwood Rowland, Mario Molina and Paul Crutzen for their pioneering work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.

  • 1994

    Developed countries phase out halons

    Developed countries phase out halons used in products such as fire-fighting equipment, followed by developing countries in 2010.

  • 1994

    Copenhagen Amendment enters into force

    The Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1992 in Copenhagen at the Fourth Meeting of the Parties enters into force.

  • 1993

    International Ozone Day proclaimed

    The UN General Assembly proclaims 16 September as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, to be observed from 1995 on 16 September.

  • 1993

    Permanent Multilateral Fund established

    The Multilateral Fund is established on a permanent basis to replace the Interim Multilateral Fund.

  • 1993

    Protocol Adjustments enter into force

    Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1992 in Copenhagen at the Fourth Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

  • 1992

    Adoption of the non-compliance procedure

    The non-compliance procedure of the Montreal Protocol is adopted. Establishment of the Implementation Committee.

  • 1992

    London Amendment enters into force

    The London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1990 in London at the Second Meeting of the Parties enters into force.

  • 1991

    Multilateral Fund becomes operational

    The Interim Multilateral Fund becomes operational.

  • 1991

    Adjustments enter into force

    Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1990 in London at the Second Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

  • 1990

    Ozone phase-out begins

    Implementing agencies commence ozone phase-out activities, with funding from the Multilateral Fund.

  • 1990

    Interim Non-Compliance procedure adopted

    The Interim Non-Compliance Procedure for the Montreal Protocol is adopted.

  • 1990

    Financial Mechanism adopted

    Parties to the Montreal Protocol decide to amend the Protocol to create a financial mechanism under the Protocol, including the Multilateral Fund.

  • 1989

    First Reports published

    First reports by Assessment Panels on the review of control measures under the Montreal Protocol are published, and since, periodic assessments have been published, providing critical information to the Parties, based on available scientific, environmental, technical and economic information.

  • 1989

    Protocol enters into force

    The Montreal Protocol enters into force on 1 January.

  • 1988

    First control measures

    The first set of control measures under the Montreal Protocol take effect for developed countries.

  • 1988

    Convention enters into force

    The Vienna Convention enters into force on 22 September.

  • 1985

    Montreal protocol adoption

    The Montreal Protocol is adopted on 16 September. The day is marked globally as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer since 16 September 1995.

  • 1984

    Antarctic hole

    British Antarctic Survey scientists report on the recurring springtime ozone hole over Antarctica.

  • 1977

    The world plan of action

    The World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer adopted by the UNEP Governing Council calls for intensive international research and monitoring of the ozone layer.

  • 1973

    Discovery

    Scientists Sherry Rowland and Mario Molina in a scientific article published in the journal Nature warn that human-generated CFCs are harming the ozone layer.