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Ozone Timeline

  • Timeline

2020

Kigali Amendment exceeds 100 ratifications

Since coming into effect on 1 January 2019, the number of parties to ratify the Kigali Amendment exceed 100. The Kigali Amendment will avoid around 0.4°C of global heating directly by encouraging the use of climate-safe refrigerants in place of high global warming HFCs.

2019

Quito Adjustment

The Adjustment to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 2018 in Quito at the Thirtieth Meeting of the Parties enters into force on 21 June 2019.

Kigali Amendment enters into force

The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol enters into force on 1 January 2019. The Amendment will reduce the projected production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by more than 80 per cent over the next 30 years.

2016

Kigali Amendment adopted

Parties adopt the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on 15 October, agreeing to phase down the consumption and production of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

2015

HFC phase-down pathway agreed to

After six years of discussions, parties agree to work under the “Dubai Pathway on Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)” towards an amendment to the Montreal Protocol to phase down HFCs.

Notable reductions by developing countries

Developing countries phase out methyl chloroform and reduce by 10 per cent their production and consumption of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).

2014

All four Protocol Amendments ratified

All four Amendments to the Montreal Protocol achieve universal ratification by 197 Parties.

2013

Healing of ozone layer confirmed

The scientific assessment of ozone depletion in 2014 confirms that the ozone layer is healing and will return to pre-1980 levels by mid-century, thanks to actions taken by Parties under the Montreal Protocol.

90 per cent reduction of HCFCs in developed countries

Developed countries eliminate 90 per cent of their HCFC production and consumption.

Developing countries freeze HCFCs

Developing countries freeze the production and consumption of HCFCs.

2012

Skin cancer prevention recognized

A scientific article published in the Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology notes that through ozone protection efforts, up to 2 million cases of skin cancer may be prevented each year by 2030.

2010

All parties phase out fully hydrogenated ODSs

All parties to the Montreal Protocol phase out the consumption and production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride and other fully hydrogenated ozone depleting substances.

2009

Climate change impact measured

A scientific article published in the PNAS journal notes that the Montreal Protocol has averted more than 135 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions going to the atmosphere, thus significantly contributing to the mitigation of climate change.

2008

Universal ratification achieved

The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol become the first multilateral environmental treaties to achieve universal ratification.

Protocol Adjustments enter into force

Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 2007 in Montreal at the Nineteenth Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

2007

HCFC phase-out accelerated

The Montreal Protocol is adjusted to accelerate the phase-out of HCFCs by developing countries.

2005

Largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded

The largest Antarctic ozone hole, averaging 26.6 million square kilometres, is recorded.

2004

Developed countries phase out methyl bromide

Developed countries phase out methyl bromide, followed by developing countries by 2015.

2003

Montreal Protocol wins praise

Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan terms the Montreal Protocol “perhaps the single most successful international environmental agreement to date.”

2002

Beijing Amendment enters into force

The Beijing Amendment to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1999 in Beijing at the Eleventh Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

2000

Protocol adjustments enter into force

After six years of discussions, parties agree to work under the “Dubai Pathway on Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)” towards an amendment to the Montreal Protocol to phase down HFCs.

1999

Montreal Amendment enters into force

The Montreal Amendment to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1997 in Montreal at the Ninth Meeting of the Parties enters into force.

1998

Protocol adjustments enter into force

Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1997 in Montreal at the Ninth Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

1997

First developing country control measures take effect

The first set of control measures under the Montreal Protocol take effect for developing countries.

1996

Developing countries freeze HCFCs

Developing countries freeze the production and consumption of HCFCs.

Protocol adjustments enter into force

Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1995 in Vienna at the Seventh Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

1994

Ozone work wins nobel prize

The Nobel Prize for Chemistry is awarded to Sherwood Rowland, Mario Molina and Paul Crutzen for their pioneering work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.

Developed countries phase out halons

Developed countries phase out halons used in products such as fire-fighting equipment, followed by developing countries in 2010.

Copenhagen Amendment enters into force

The Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1992 in Copenhagen at the Fourth Meeting of the Parties enters into force.

1993

International Ozone Day proclaimed

The UN General Assembly proclaims 16 September as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, to be observed from 1995 on 16 September.

Permanent Multilateral Fund established

The Multilateral Fund is established on a permanent basis to replace the Interim Multilateral Fund.

Protocol Adjustments enter into force

Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1992 in Copenhagen at the Fourth Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

1992

Adoption of the non-compliance procedure

The non-compliance procedure of the Montreal Protocol is adopted. Establishment of the Implementation Committee.

London Amendment enters into force

The London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1990 in London at the Second Meeting of the Parties enters into force.

1991

Multilateral Fund becomes operational

The Interim Multilateral Fund becomes operational.

Adjustments enter into force

Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol agreed in 1990 in London at the Second Meeting of the Parties enter into force.

1990

Ozone phase-out begins

Implementing agencies commence ozone phase-out activities, with funding from the Multilateral Fund.

Interim Non-Compliance procedure adopted

The Interim Non-Compliance Procedure for the Montreal Protocol is adopted.

Financial mechanism adopted

Parties to the Montreal Protocol decide to amend the Protocol to create a financial mechanism under the Protocol, including the Multilateral Fund.

1989

Montreal Protocol enters into force

The Montreal Protocol enters into force on 1 January.

First Assessment Panel reports published

First reports by Assessment Panels on the review of control measures under the Montreal Protocol are published, and since, periodic assessments have been published, providing critical information to the Parties, based on available scientific, environmental, technical and economic information.

1988

First control measures

The first set of control measures under the Montreal Protocol take effect for developed countries.

Vienna Convention enters into force

The Vienna Convention enters into force on 22 September.

1987

Montreal Protocol adoption

The Montreal Protocol is adopted on 16 September. The day is marked globally as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer since 16 September 1995.

1985

Antarctic hole

British Antarctic Survey scientists report on the recurring springtime ozone hole over Antarctica.

1977

The World Plan of Action

The World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer adopted by the UNEP Governing Council calls for intensive international research and monitoring of the ozone layer.

1974

Discovery

Scientists Sherwood (Sherry) Rowland and Mario Molina in a scientific article published in the journal Nature warn that human-generated CFCs are harming the ozone layer.